Who Created The Gate Control Theory?



Melzack wrote that the loss of sensory input after amputation would decrease the inhibition from the brain and therefore increase the self-sustaining neural activity of the gate, thereby causing pain.

What are the three pain control theories?

The four most influential theories of pain perception include the Specificity (or Labeled Line), Intensity, Pattern, and Gate Control Theories of Pain (Fig. 1). The Specificity Theory refers to the presence of dedicated pathways for each somatosensory modality.

What is 5 the gate control theory of pain?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The gate control theory of pain asserts that non-painful input closes the nerve “gates” to painful input, which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the central nervous system.

Why do we feel pain NCBI?

Pain, whether linked with injured tissue, inflammation, or functional impairment, is mediated by processing in the nervous system. In this sense, all pain is physical. Yet, regardless of its source, pain may result in hypervigilance, threat appraisals, emotional reactions, and avoidant behavior.

Where is the gate in the gate control theory GCT of pain located?

The gate through which the pain pathways send signals to the nervous system is located in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord. The dorsal horns are composed of several layers, called laminae. Two of these layers make up the substantia gelatinosa, the hypothesized location of the gate mechanism.

What is the gate control theory in psychology?

the hypothesis that the subjective experience of pain is modulated by large nerve fibers in the spinal cord that act as gates, such that pain is not the product of a simple transmission of stimulation from the skin or some internal organ to the brain.

How does the gate theory applies to pharmacologic measures to control pain?

The gate control theory of pain developed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 proposes that tiny neural networks distributed along the dorsal horn of the spinal cord are responsible for relieving the pain in a specific body location when an intense tactile stimulation is applied at the same place.

Is gate control theory proven?

While it is perhaps the most influential theory of pain perception, gate control is not without problems. Many of the ideas suggested by Melzack and Wall have not been substantiated by research, including the very existence of an actual gating system in the spinal cord.

Is the gate control theory physiological or psychological?

Although the theory accounts for phenomena that are primarily mental in nature – that is, pain itself as well as some of the psychological factors influencing it – its scientific beauty is that it provides a physiological basis for the complex phenomenon of pain.

Which pain relief intervention is based on the gate control theory of pain?

The theory has also paved way for more research on cognitive and behavioral approaches to achieve pain relief. One of the tremendous advances in pain management research is the advent of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS). The gate control theory forms the basis of TENS.

What are the two theories of pain?

The pain theories that this activity will discuss below include the intensity theory, Cartesian dualism theory, specificity theory, pattern theory, gate control theory, neuromatrix model, and the biopsychosocial.

How is pain transmitted to the brain?

Pain is a complex physiological process. A pain message is transmitted to the brain by specialized nerve cells known as nociceptors, or pain receptors (pictured in the circle to the right). When pain receptors are stimulated by temperature, pressure or chemicals, they release neurotransmitters within the cells.


What are the pain pathways?

The medial thalamus projects to widespread areas of the forebrain, including the somatosensory cortex (Jones and Leavitt, 1974). Thus there are two major ascending pathways for pain: a direct lateral spinothalamic pathway and an indirect medial spinoreticulothalamic pathway.

What is frequency theory in psychology?

The frequency theory of hearing proposes that whatever the pitch of a sound wave, nerve impulses of a corresponding frequency will be sent to the auditory nerve. For example, a tone measuring 600 hertz will be transduced into 600 nerve impulses a second.

What is substance P in psychology?

Substance P is a neurotransmitter that is released when axons are stimulated. Elevated levels of substance P increase the sensitivity of nerves to pain or heighten awareness of pain.

What is the specificity theory?

Specificity theory is one of the first modern theories for pain. It holds that specific pain receptors transmit signals to a “pain center” in the brain that produces the perception of painVon Frey (1895) argued that the body has a separate sensory system for perceiving pain—just as it does for hearing and vision.

How can the gate for pain be closed?

In times of anxiety or stress, descending messages from the brain may actually amplify the pain signal at the nerve gate as it moves up the spinal cord. Alternatively, impulses from the brain can “close” the nerve gate, preventing the pain signal from reaching the brain and being experienced as pain.

How does stress control pain?

“Because pain the nervous system, the brain is a key player in how we perceive pain,” says Dr. Stanos. “The brain is always trying to inhibit pain signals. But if you’re stressed, simply put, the brain’s ability to filter these pain signals is affected in a bad way and pain can be increased.”

What are some of the psychological influences of pain?

Some common emotional responses to pain can include anxiety, depression, anger, feeling misunderstood, and demoralization. It is important to recognize whether these factors are prevalent in your life.

Do plants feel pain?

Unlike us and other animals, plants do not have nociceptors, the specific types of receptors that are programmed to respond to pain. They also, of course, don’t have brains, so they lack the machinery necessary to turn those stimuli into an actual experience. This is why plants are incapable of feeling pain.

Where is the pain center of the brain?

Researchers conducted imaging scans of the brains of people who were experiencing pain waxing and waning over several hours. They identified a region of the brain called the dorsal posterior insula, which became active in response to how much pain a person felt.

How do we feel pain nervous system?

When we feel pain, such as when we touch a hot stove, sensory receptors in our skin send a message via nerve fibres (A-delta fibres and C fibres) to the spinal cord and brainstem and then onto the brain where the sensation of pain is registered, the information is processed and the pain is perceived.

What are the 4 types of pain?


  • Nociceptive Pain: Typically the result of tissue injury. …
  • Inflammatory Pain: An abnormal inflammation caused by an inappropriate response by the body’s immune system. …
  • Neuropathic Pain: Pain caused by nerve irritation. …
  • Functional Pain: Pain without obvious origin, but can cause pain.